Quick Start Rules


Imagine that you are the Army General in your command tent. Before you on a table is the map of the battlefield with the latest best estimates of yours and your opponents positions. You discuss possible options with your Corps commanders and move your units where you want them to move, as well as attack. Aides write down the orders and race on horseback to the field commanders. While this is going on, other aides are rushing back with the latest reports and updating your map. Sometimes everything goes according to plan. Usually, you have some surprises, as well as those moments where you are absolutely astonished by the events you see transpiring right before your eyes. If only you could be right there, but you also need to be right there, and there, and over there. This is real Fog of War at the highest level. This is Pub Battles!

Here is the official Video. I highly recommend subscribing to this channel!



Infantry – Basic unit of the game, uses foot movement rate.

Detachment — One hit, one die, minor unit used primarily for Fog of War.

Cavalry – Fast moving unit, uses mounted movement rate.

Artillery – Primarily ranged combat, uses foot movement rate, unless labeled “Horse Artillery.”

HQ – Small cube that represents a commander’s locale, from which command range is measured. Use mounted move rates.

Baggage Train – These represent supply and signals elements, as well as field hospitals. Can’t enter swamps. Use foot movement rates.

Terms – Appear in italics when found in rules.

Activation – When a command chit is drawn, that command, and all its units, are activated. They may move, attack, bombard, or recover.

Attack – To move into contact with an enemy unit.

Bombardment – Ranged artillery fire…

Column – A long narrow formation used to facilitate quick road movement (X2). To move in column a unit is positioned so its length is stretched out along a road. Vulnerable if attacked. It cost 1/3 move to switch into, or out of, column.

Command – A Corps HQ may only command units in its Corps. An Army HQ may command any units in its army, also it may have units attached directly to it alone. Only units in command before they move may move into contact with an enemy. Only active units may move, and only active units in command may move into contact, Thus, an army HQ may command any units, but only activated units may move!

Command Range – 1/3 mounted move as measured from closest edges.

Cover –Units in terrain that conveys a combat advantage are considered “in cover.”

Defender – The unit that was contacted.

Detachment – Smaller units whose primary function is to add to Fog of War. ! hit destroys them and they only roll one die in combat.

Entering/Crossing – A unit is considered entering/crossing a terrain feature if the majority of the piece is in the feature.

Face – A unit’s front facing is the side opposite its label if fresh, or adjacent to the top of its label if spent.

Field of Fire – (FoF) I measure 1/3 infantry move from the front center of the unit.

Line of Sight – If the front center of the unit can see a majority of the unit in question, it is considered in its Line of Sight. Line of Sight has a range of one infantry move.

Flip – To flip a unit to signify a changed status.

Fresh – An unspent unit. The label is facing you and the top is blank, hiding the unit’s identity from the opposing player.

Hits – A fresh unit can sustain three hits in one round of combat. The first hit will flip it to spent. A second hit will cause it to retreat. A third hit will eliminate it. A spent unit will retreat with one hit, and be eliminated by two hits.

Occupying Terrain – If a unit has at least half its block in a terrain feature.

Recover – A spent unit that is not within 1/3 foot move of an enemy unit and does not move, may flip back to its fresh side if within command range of an unpacked Baggage train. It may also pivot.

Resolves completely – Two units in contact continue rounds of combat until no longer in contact.

Retreat – If you must retreat, you rotate 180 degrees and move 1/3 away from the attacker. If you would pass over half of any friendly unit, you will cause them to become spent (and rotate) and push them ahead of you.

Round – Each time a pair of units roll dice in combat. Units in contact may fight several rounds.

Spent – A unit that has suffered one damage. Spent Artillery may not bombard.

Supporting – Infantry and cavalry may be moved adjacent to, and directly behind, a friendly unit to support it. If the supported unit retreats or is eliminated, the supporting unit may retreat, or advance to contact and continue combat.

Excess hits do not carry over to supporting units.

Unsupported – Artillery that is unsupported is eliminated if forced to retreat.

Turn Order

Activation phase – This is when you draw chits randomly from a cup to activate a command.

Combat phase – Units in contact with enemy units now resolve combat.

Reset phase – HQs that were flipped to Alter Turn Order are now flipped back.

Activation: Movement, Bombardment, Recovery

When activated, move the HQ first to bring key units into command range. All of a corps’ units may move, but only those in command range may attack enemy units. This is also when Artillery may bombard (not in the combat phase!). Spent units that don’t move may recover if in command range of an unpacked baggage unit.

How to move – A unit moves in the direction it is facing as far as 1 movement chain (or stick) of its type; foot or mounted. It may move in echelon (diagonally) up to 45 degrees maintaining its same facing. It may change its facing once for free, or a second time by subtracting 1/3 of its total movement allowance. If it moves entirely without entering any terrain features it may move one full move, if it enters any terrain features it may only move 2/3.

You may move even if you have been previously contacted that turn since movement is simultaneous. This is a key concept in Pub Battles!

Cavalry, artillery, and Baggage Trains may not enter swamp terrain.

You cannot end your move in an enemy’s FoF without moving into contact unless in cover.

It does not matter if the unit moves through a single patch of woods, or through woods, hills, and streams, it moves 2/3 instead of a full move. It is sometimes easier to imagine that units always move 2/3 unless they remain entirely in clear terrain when they can move 3/3. Of course, you still pay another third for other non-terrain reasons (consult the chart on the back of the rule book).

BombardmentFresh Artillery that does not move may bombard. The artillery must have a Line of Sight. Roll 3 dice and apply hits. Bombardment cannot eliminate a unit. Excess hits are ignored.

Recovery – A spent unit that is not contacting or in the Field of Fire of an enemy unit, and does not move, may flip back to its fresh side if it is within command range of a Baggage Train. It may also pivot.

Official Video:

How to have Combat

Combat is fought in rounds until the units are no longer in contact. Each player in a combat rolls 3 dice and scores a hit on 4 or more each round. These numbers can be modified.

A defending unit gains a terrain modifier for occupying terrain.

Flanking – If you contact the side or rear of an enemy unit it is considered flanked. This adds 1 to the attacker’s roll and subtracts 1 from the defender’s roll.

Special Combat cases

Cavalry may not attack units in woods.

Artillery – Bombarding artillery can never eliminate a unit. Any hits that would ordinarily eliminate a unit are ignored. Artillery in the first round of combat always resolves its dice first, and then any remaining defender’s may roll dice and apply effects. Unsupported artillery is eliminated if forced to retreat.

Elites ignore the first hit, in each bombardment, and in each entire combat.

Militias count the first hit as two hits, in each bombardment, and in each entire combat entire combat.

Multiple unit combats are handled by resolving one attacking unit at a time. The side that gets to choose the order selects which attacking unit resolves its combat. This continues until there are no enemy units in contact. If a defending unit is flanked, all combats with that defender use the flanking bonus until the defender is no longer flanked.

HQs are abstract representation of command and are never affected by combat. Simply move them out of the way. Their location is only critical during the activation phase when determining command. Each activation, command is determined from one point, you cannot move and command from different places during the same activation. When moving you can move them anywhere within 1 mounted move, they ignore facing and terrain (they cannot ignore impassable terrain features).

Official Video:

Baggage Trains – use the foot movement rate. They must unpack (flip them over) to allow units to Recover. Once unpacked they may not move.

Victory Conditions

See page 10 of the rulebook, and refer to the individual scenario as well.

Other rules for unit types may apply, be sure and check the scenario guidelines.

Design Philosophy

The Pub Battles system simulates fighting a battle from the command post. This is a command simulation, not a combat simulation. This means a lot of detail is hidden from the players. Just like real commanders, you can’t be everywhere at once. Were you to leave your command post for any length of time, you would become completely blind to the battle as a whole.

The map in front of you, unlike most wargames, isn’t an exact representation of the actual positions of every unit on the battlefield. It is the best estimates your aides have of the ever changing “current” situation.

When you move a unit on the map, this simulates the orders you have given to your subordinates, not necessarily where they have moved. Only time will tell how your finely planned orders have been executed.

An exception to this is the “Alter Turn Order” rule where a commander attempts to directly affect the turn order. This can be thought of as those times when the commander leaves the HQ tent and takes direct control of his command. The rest of the time, it is assumed that the commander must rely on subordinates to communicate battlefield reports.

This means that often the disposition of the units on the map won’t make complete sense. “Why aren’t they Attacking!” is a common frustration when viewing opposing units in close proximity to each other. Maybe they may not be exactly there; maybe they can’t see because of smoke or fog; Maybe they are uncertain where other threats might be. There are many possibilities. Too many to have a separate rule for each.

The chit draw mechanic covers all those eventualities elegantly. Sometimes you want to go first; you want to rally before the next attack, or you want to get there before the defender can rally. Other times, you want to go last so you can pick exactly where and when you fight, or you just want your opponent to reveal his intentions first.

Another reason combat is depicted simply is because of scale. When you see the blocks on the map it is easy to imagine miniatures games where those blocks represent regiments or battalions. Pub Battles is representing divisions, so it’s more like the old hex based divisions…Except this looks so much cooler!

Once you have played the game enough to get the feel of the benefits of moving either earlier or later, you will appreciate the Alter Turn Order rules.

38 thoughts on “Quick Start Rules

  1. Ok, I’ve got my new Antietam game with a number of chains. I have two gold, of two different lengths and four silver, two each of different lengths. How are these to be assembled? Do the two longer silver ones get connected to the longer gold one with the gold one in the middle? Same for the shorter lengths?


  2. Not sure if this is a real concern or just my OCD kicking in, but…looking at the chains depicted on page 5 of my Monmouth rules I see that my infantry chain has 13 gold links instead of 14 and one of the silver ends has 7 instead of 8. My cav chain has 13 gold instead of 14; and both silver ends have 20 instead of 19. I did write to CP games about this and am awaiting their answer…


    1. I thought I had replied to this, sorry if I have not. When I play, I rarely use any measuring device unless I’m using road movement. I simply go by “close enough.”
      The movement rates are estimates at best and are really just guidelines to allow both sides to move relatively equally.
      A turn is so much more than just moving, you must allow for decision time, logistical and organizational hiccups, as well as combat.
      You can even imagine the time per turn as telescoping. Maybe when lots is going on it represents much less time, and during quiet lulls it can be thought of as longer.
      As long as both players are using the same measuring chain, that is fair.


  3. Hi, What do you think about using kriegspiel pieces with pub battles rules ? Do you try it ? Just we have to change the scale ? 1/3 infantry move is about 400 paces : that matches the musket range.
    For a better and quicker play turn, a turn will be of 4 / 6 minutes.
    May be test between FOE or FOF. FOF for 1870 units (chassepots) and FOE for napoleonic battles. I will wait for your opinion.
    Thanks for your work on this nice piece of game


    1. The game’s designer and several of the playtesters, who are into kriegspiel, have played it with kriegspiel pieces. My understanding is that they either use two kriegspiel pieces side by side to represent one PB piece, or they simply halve the scale.
      However, once you do that you need to take into consideration more tactical level concerns, like ranges and weapon types. At that point it becomes a different game.
      PB focuses on army command level decisions and leaves the lower echelon concerns to lower level commanders.
      There are a lot of games that cover that better and I have enjoyed them, however I have no illusions about how far one strays from actual simulation as one gets more detailed.
      I enjoy PB immensely for all the reasons I have written about and have no desire to add rules that are not necessary. I can readily imagine what is actually happening on the battlefield without the added rules “telling” me.
      One thing you will note is that two kriegspiel pieces side by side allow you to flex the division to deny a flank, which can provide a better look on the table top. You may have noticed that my rules don’t use the positional flanking rules as printed, but simply require multiple attackers. This is my nod to local superiority, while preventing unnatural advantage being taken of the wooden block’s size.
      You will note also that I try to smooth out the game rules, not add to them.
      To each his own! There was a time when I would have welcomed any effort to simulate a battle in greater detail. The PB system is robust and will accommodate the added rules and variations.
      Thank you for your comments and interest!


      1. Thank you for your quick answer ! I will try it and see what will going on. with a smallest scale without too much rules. The reason is that i’d like play some French and Prussian battles with Pub Battles system. Beside this : i’ve played Dracula’s pub battles with my kids the week : a nice piece of game too.


      2. Let me know how that period works for you. The system really works best with Napoleonic era corps level combat, because it was designed around that command structure and army size.
        Ancien Regime era, like 7YW armies were smaller and the command concerns different.
        Soldier on!


  4. After playing around with Monmouth I’m getting ready to move on to Antietam. But, here’s some questions:
    Can units only cross Antietam Creek via bridges or fords? I’m assuming, yes.

    If a unit starts in column on a road, and assuming no terrain restrictions, using the 6/6ths principle, can the unit move 3/6ths on the road, then deploy into line using 2/6ths…can it use the remains 1/6th to move half of the one third remaining movement?

    When a unit tries to move into combat and cannot quite reach the target unit, must it end its movement farther back to be at least 1/3 movement away? What if it ends its movement in woods, and is located the thickness of a block deep, but still closer than 1/3 movement thus being blocked, would this be allowed?

    It looks like Antietam comes with the optional baggage trains. True?

    On turn one an elite unit takes two hits. It ignores the first hit but flips. On turn two, the flipped elite unit takes two more hits. Does it still ignore the first hit and retreat? I’m assuming yes as long as these are separate battles and not part of the first one.

    Same question as above with elite units. On turn one, two units attack an elite unit. Elite takes two hits from first attacker and ignores the first hit. Elite unit eliminates the first attacker. Second attacker then inflicts two hits. Is elite then eliminated? Can elite still fire at second attacker?



    1. Great questions, Jim!
      Antietam can only be crossed at bridges and Fords.

      You are correct about road movement.

      Elite units ignore the first hit in a combat each turn. That combat may last several rounds, but only the first hit is ignored.

      Antietam comes with baggage trains.

      According to the official rules, a unit that cannot contact an enemy must remain a third away, unless LOS is blocked. So your example of the woods would allow closer movement. This rule is not uncontested within the circle of rules developers, but that is the official rule.

      There are some who think that with skirmishers and pickets acting as eyes and ears, LOS shouldn’t matter.

      Then there is my camp that plays that if the attacking unit is within 3/8″, that is close enough and they should be placed in contact. If not that close, then simply end movement without combat (the end result being that any combat that might occur was not decisive enough to result in step loss or retreat).

      According to official rules, each unit can only fire once each round, which means a defender facing two attackers is facing 6 dice off attacks.

      My own rules handle it a little differently, but those are the official rules.


  5. Thanks for the quick response! I do have some follow on ones…to cross Antietam Creek via a ford or bridge, I am assuming that a unit must be in column. Is this correct? Also, if there is a CSA unit blocking the crossing such that a USA unit can not deploy into line after crossing, or in the process of crossing, would the USA unit attack at a -2 die roll modifier? Same for the defending CSA unit; would it fire defensively (and simultaneously) with a +2 modifier? Sorry for all the questions…I’m a long time hex and counter wargamer trying to get a grasp on this system. Thanks…Jim


    1. You do not need to be in column to cross a ford or bridge, it does count as entering terrain so your max move is reduced by a third, same as with any other terrain.
      If you switch from column to line (minus a third) and then enter any terrain (another third) you will only have one third left to move.

      A simple way to grasp terrain costs is to imagine that you normally move 2/3 unless you move in only clear terrain, in which case you move the full 3/3. Switching formation, or pivoting more than once is an additional (for each case).


  6. Hello Mike,
    I really like how you have faced the rules for Pub Battles and I think your additions are clever and improve somehow the official rules, I specially like the twist with flanking as per offcial rules I found very gamey the situation where each enemy unit coming to attack your unit where always searching a flank position to weak it. That was not too real to me, ok , it come be done sometimes simulating a unit could take you by surprise but not when is done 90 % of the times if movement rate distance allow it.

    I have also read your comment above concerning defenders number of rolls:

    “According to official rules, each unit can only fire once each round, which means a defender facing two attackers is facing 6 dice off attacks.

    My own rules handle it a little differently, but those are the official rules.”

    I would like what is exactly your suggestion to handle this , could you please explain it ? Thanks


    1. It’s always good to hear from you, Jose!

      In my own house rules I keep the chits in order and then in the combat phase I go in reverse chit order (start with the last chit drawn and go towards the first chit drawn). I resolve each combat as a pair of units. In the case of two units facing one defender, each attacker rolls versus the defender, and the defender rolls as well.

      In the above example, The first combat is resolved entirely (until the two units are no longer in contact). Since the defender is suffering the flanking die roll modifiers, this usually is the only combat fought since after being eliminated or retreating the defender is no longer in contact with any attacker’s.
      If the defender wins the combat, then the second combat is fought without the flanking modifiers since the defender is no longer flanked.
      In the case of flanking units being themselves flanked, the reverse chit order guarantees that the multiple unit combats get resolved from the outside in.
      Hope this makes sense!


  7. Thanks for the quick answer Mike!
    Sorry I missed the combat order phase with reverse chit order, good addition as well to the system.
    It is a long time I dont play my game, reading your blog makes one wish to play again !

    Liked by 1 person

  8. Jackson, you’re very welcome. It is a tough deal writing rules for a new system. The basic rules are very simple, but when they are being read by experienced gamers there is a lot of “baggage” from other wargames that cloud us from seeing a simpler way of doing things. They would have easily doubled the length of the rules by trying to unteach old systems.

    For instance, in most wargame rules, if you move into contact, the enemy can’t just move away. In PBs he can, IF he activates after. This is the simultaneous rule. One way of thinking about it is to say that the player moving after has the tactical edge. Often, when attacking, you want to move after your opponent so you can fight when and where you want to, under your terms.

    This is not always the case. Sometimes you want to move first, hoping that the defender will leave the position rather than fight it out.


  9. Mike, is the Quick Start still valid for Pub Battles version 3.0?

    If not, what is obsolete and/or needs to be added or subtracted from your Guide?


    1. I’ve added the term Retreat to the terms section. I hadn’t noticed this new rule when I had first written this. It was a last minute change that had been added in. I do use it and I like it.
      Thanks for keeping me sharp!


  10. So cavalry may retreat before combat, but that is true of all units if they move after being contacted by an enemy unit. So what’s the difference between withdrawal of cavalry units and other units regarding retreat from combat? see rules 3.0 p 9


    1. cavalry may retreat prior to combat in the combat phase. This represents foot’s inability to initiate combat with cav. So even if the cav was contacted after it had been moved in the movement phase, it can still avoid combat.

      Remember, movement is considered simultaneous. Frequently, those moving after their opponents can be thought of as seizing the tactical edge and deciding where, and if, to fight.


      1. To be clear on this, cavalry may retreat prior combat but just against foot units. In the case of cavalry vs cavalry unit they need to resolve combat.

        Also if this cavalry units retreat in the combat phase it becomes spent?


  11. How does a unit take a third hit, if the second hit causes it to retreat?

    How does a train move? Thru command range of an HQ?

    When and how do HQs move? Do they move up to the same foot mvmt limit?

    How do you determine to which HQ are artillery and cavalry are assigned?

    I don’t quit understand how to Alter Turn Order. Lee is rated 4. McClln is rated 3. “Roll 1 die less than

    or equal to your HQ rating. If successful….” Ok so Lee rolls 3 die. McClln rolls 2 die. What’s a success?

    It does not say what roll is successful, it just tells you how many die to roll!

    So if a unit is supported and is forced to retreat, it causes the supporting unit to be spent?
    And then that supporting units is advanced to contact the attacker?

    Sorry for all these questions, I’m sure some are probably obvious to you, but I just got the game and
    am trying to learn the rules for playing this visual feast.

    Thanks for your patience

    Liked by 1 person

  12. How does a unit take a third hit, if the second hit causes it to retreat? If it suffers enough hits to be eliminated it is simply eliminated, no retreat necessary.

    How does a train move? Thru command range of an HQ? They move whenever their HQ is drawn. Command range is only ever a concern if a unit wishes to move into contact with an enemy.

    When and how do HQs move? Do they move up to the same foot mvmt limit? HQs use the mounted rate.

    How do you determine to which HQ are artillery and cavalry are assigned? The scenario shows who they are assigned to. Usually, this is also printed on the label, but not always (as in Brandywine) to allow for players to decide who is attached to whom.

    I don’t quit understand how to Alter Turn Order. Lee is rated 4. McClln is rated 3. “Roll 1 die less than or equal to your HQ rating. If successful….” Ok so Lee rolls 3 die. McClln rolls 2 die. What’s a success? You roll a (one) die and if the score is equal to the command number or less the attempt is successful.

    It does not say what roll is successful, it just tells you how many die to roll! See above.

    So if a unit is supported and is forced to retreat, it causes the supporting unit to be spent?
    And then that supporting units is advanced to contact the attacker? No, if the unit is supporting, then it simply advances to contact the enemy suffering no ill affect from the retreating unit. It may elect to retreat with the unit, becoming spent if it does so.

    These answers are all in the rules if you go back and check. It is hard to wrap your head around a new system, your confusion is not unprecedented, many questions arise simply because of the weaknesses of language. Once you “get it” the rules seem clear and obvious.

    I intend to make a video showing me playing a game, but that is just beyond my comfort level, skillset-wise, so I haven’t actually gotten around to it.


  13. To clarify
    If a unit has two hits it must retreat.. it can’t stay in contact/combat.
    So how does it get a 3rd hit if it had to retreat?
    It’s no longer in combat if it retreated so it can’t sustain a 3rd hit.

    When does a unit Rally? During mvmt phase and it did not move correct?
    A just moved baggage train can unpack and rally any spent units correct?

    A cavalry unit merely Rallies itself without regard to Baggage Trains,
    but it still must not have moved during that phase correct?

    Thanks again.


    1. Think of it this way: If a unit only suffers two hits it must retreat. If it suffers 3 hits it is eliminated instead.
      Correct, and a just unpacked baggage train can be used by units to rally. Also, a Baggage Train can rally any unit within command range. It is only attached to a specific HQ for movement purposes.

      Correct re:cav

      I enjoy answering your questions, frequently others have the same questions, or are doing something wrong without realizing it, so it is good to shine some light.

      Please keep them coming, especially if something doesn’t seem right.


  14. Ok Mike I’ve started to play and I’ve got Questions.

    If the unit goes up slope, cross across the top of hill and then down a slope is that 1/3 or 2/3?

    If the unit takes 2/3 to get to a stream edge, does he have to stop there?
    Can it cross with the last 1/3 and stay at that far side’s edge?

    Does a unit spend 2/3 to go down a slope and immediately cross the stream
    at the bottom of that slope?

    Can a unit deploy across the peninsula near Snaveley’s Ford across two sections of that stream?

    If there is a third unit contacting a supporting unit, is there any positive effect? Or is that
    not smart tactics? Any advantage to that or no


    1. The easiest way to think about terrain effects on movement is to imagine the unit only moves 2/3 unless it spends the entire move in clear terrain.

      One unit can defend both crossings.

      Only one unit can support, any more will suffer the consequences of the main unit retreating. Often, in crowded situations, you may risk bunching units up, but there is no advantage. Only a single unit may provide support, any more provide no advantage, and will suffer if the lead unit suffers a retreat.


  15. Oh, to which Commands are the 3 Union artillery units assigned?
    Or are they a separate Command?
    Artillery Reserves 1, 2 and 3.
    They’ve got an AR chit, but since they don’t need an HQ to bombard
    nor do they do need an HQ to move just how do they move or attack?

    Do they answer to any one HQ? If not are they independent of all HQs?

    Confederate Artillery are assigned, so no questions there.


    1. I’m sorry I didn’t reply sooner, Stephan. They move and bombard when their chit is drawn. As you pointed out, they don’t really need an HQ for anything.

      A unit only needs to be in command to move into contact with an enemy, which artillery can’t do. They can be contacted, but not move into contact.

      For rules purposes, attacking is moving into melee contact, which is different from bombardment.

      Let me know if you have any further questions! I promise to reply much sooner.


  16. The Union artillery are assigned to no HQ. They are activated when their chit is drawn.
    McClellan can roll to alter turn order for them, just as he can for any Union HQ.


  17. Regarding artillery. I see they can bombard only in the movement phase if they have not moved and they have a target in his FoF (1/3 foot range) correct?

    So in the combat phase how is the artillery involved?

    Sorry this may be explained in the rules but I cannot see where.


    1. Artillery range is one foot move. They can bombard when activated if not in contact with an enemy. If in contact, they fire in the combat phase just like any other unit, except their fire is considered before opposing unit fires in the first round. After the first round, combat is simultaneous.


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